Skip to main content

Full text of "Archaeological Department Administration Report 1107 M E"

See other formats


ARCHEOLOGICAL 

DEPARTMENT 



filMUNISTRflTIQN REPORT 

i !07 tx e. 

iHs- v ' uK ' jC l ' 1 ' 

. . , .jbiJ34 




m* fluw r&tm W' 

TSic-uft •oc-'iiv ,i 

Proceeding* of the Government o^WjiNH'ghiies* 
the Via Kara ja uf Travsncarc. 

H* l+- 

lia/iA-. 



Letter No, 492 / 33 , *\v>teA the I'Mli October IMS, front the 
Supertr.iendcnt of ArchjiMjLogy, forwArdlng the Admiiii iTriitioit 
Report of die E^fHirtineist of Arrlia.'OtiO^j lor llCT^ 



Grokr D. P [gt. No. 1401 of SiJjTKwt., datku ritivjjirkiivw. 
2 3 (it Dec eh li kh 1 S 32 , 



2^0 



RECOttDED. 



3. Daring tit; year matter review, die Department tonritijwd 
kfl activities in rc^Aid to the copying of ttuscriptionfl, the Conserva- 
tion of inuteiit Miies 1 [fie study add iiwestijpi .1 ion of temple airehi- 
Eectnnr, the eiainiimtioti and iiltmtiliciCiun. of eon nets amt object* 
reprc^iittsd by sindm-nns of temple sculpture and «LMr!a udiet 
fliiterB. Attention WLiM aiLo devored I0 (he further esfmitbii- 
of tW AbhEmiya or Art of Pantomime as exhibited in Etw micjent 
HLftthafeiiH oihJ the Kftiha, and the flection oF uv^alnbta informin' 
tiem rcyrtrxEing (lit ulaba oE ^Alii^TimFL _-t mi ;s hsm^I few o'Cif-vhlp, 
the daborue pr‘Jot;a& of Ccimpk: ritunE jiIjli th.j M udran or thu 
iojrer stsriia enydoyed in the smsui, Ret«ettrdi v&z mini.; in the 
field of prsmiti^!. muiic; and Heverat ^peettnatoi oF mdi^eimus foil? 
nongi were _ iko collected and cloasifad under eleven dmtinci 
Vobfcrjtf Vll Furt 3 of the A rctiBfoJogbce I series wjw 
published by tta j Dcpurtoiuni; und noici:i kl few Vol. VJIl wjie got 
«Wv for ftw Pry«». h is noied that capit* of insaipfioni (otlecc- 
Ud fry ibe Ikjkinnieiit from S 1Q$ to vntl bn published in 

thn.: v olumc. 

E lt> r enter] 



To 



K, GEQLfOE, 

Ghirf Secfftary to Goctrnmetti. 



Thu Director or Public IiiuLruc:inii in uiuirptc of the 
AdiniuistrjLtive ™trv3 of < lie Aidaeoli^itJ 
Deportment 

The ^ipffinlfldbt, Government Frau- 
Tlw* I 1 ™?* Hoorn- 




V. 





Atioiitii&ayiiiutu, G*g»pili awl NiLturlja* 
(Sp^'ini^n iiIJ 'towlvrurk 



Office af the Supcriat cadent of Archltvlviiy, 
Ttlv-ftsdrum, 4th October 1fJ2. 

Nifr mi&i, 



Pro EE 



To 



The Superintendent or Areha-alogy, 

TfivaisdrLmi. 

The <Jhief Secretary to JjovamTneEt, 

TrivBnjdrqTO- 



I biave the hoBflur to forward herewith the Administration Re- 
port of f, he Department of Archeology for the yen rending the &Jst 
KarkHtatatni 1107 u.e. (1331-33% ■ 



General. 



There no ch&oge in the jttiff of the DeparLtnent 
during the yea?. 

The rendu- Assistant and the Clerk -Typist were on privilege 
teuffl far 2D and 2'i days rwpeCtivelyt the photographer was 
absent on combined privilege and sick luiv'e £tkt Font? mouths 
and twentj’One d-iys r The leave vacancies oE the iterk-typiu 
end phefiographtr were alone tilled up. 

. 1 An KVtnt of pnEfit&iwiiLig imports nyn in the year wins cha 
isvffiijture of H. f£. The MuharajH with ruling powers. In the 
Btbifcifion that wub held in concoetkfft with the oelebrntianeT the 
a^jflrtaiflnE tools an active park The- sactioo devoted to the 
drej.lfly of objects of hktoricil and archaeological intercut wan 
fijraiehed with rare and valuable exhibits illustrating the grata! 
heritage qF the pest, and web appreciated sn being of eomtider- 
ub]« educative value. 



Aa part of His Highness's administrative training, an 
Opportunity we a gracwmply acowdBd In mn i# head of the 
department to nxplajn the natureh scope and value of eurch^o- 
logical wort m Travmnore to Hie Highness the Maharaja, who 
showed a deep and: abiding interest in the working of the 
department. 

Total* 



I a pent bl3 days in ramp and viuted Kalingariysn PntUuistii, 
Eflgcro^iL Kh^ukkara h Ve^tkkavibi, Qfuflnn, M tr-arikaiu tu , 

0. f\ T, Hi. GO, Itf-G’LlOO a 




a 



Puttffishiri-i, KXfLjrrApflllT, Kaviyfl,)-, ChofULkhaifi, SnttimCLrp- 

‘flf^lril, K^ijjyskilarn, Kifttfi[^ia|3i T Prnrtlr, PfijjLppiirnm, 
Kor^ppusdni, Verffcfcajak^nii, ChenfciHl;^ MivSlilckara, Allcppcy, 
MjifljumrA Vnmpoly* J&ttnmonttr. and KottayaiB. Th? Fanrtit- 
As*isbilit visited SucblntlrLim, 'Tftmarakkulmri, Capa Conan-rid 
and Fv uj;iit t i ysi fft : and aiui pud for IS tiny.- to take eatnm- 
pages of unpublished inscription*., My tnnre were rrnmsly 
dirrtsrcd To the exploration of ancient reiicn and the exjtmitta- 
lion (if i he valuable irorks o£ art in the temples of the State, 
S|K*einl attention wim paid to the colLection of im jiub-] la h.^rL 
insuripiions which Urd escaped thit notreu of the depart mats t in 
fchu post. An attempt was also mattu towards the study of 
folklore havin'* regard to its imparEautu in a scheme of nreluco- 
lpgitJil work, ih* work done during the yarn may roughly bo 
dS-tsififid as [oiloxrs:— 



Epigraph; - 



A ji,tKJ(il deal of this exploratory work of thu department 
in thfl year comd-ibud in th* copying and reading OF nncinnt. 
ioisrripfi'nnE. EstnuipiLpes of seventeen unpublished inscriptions 
Vcie taken:} anti their texts were deciphered httd trnnBcribod. 
(JE thefts, three inwripticna ware from Ka(ukliftrii t ltto copied 
Erona a rock lying ill the Tirnviii'i katopywriim M raiaple and OO* 
from = 1 - stone-piller standing in the Pena-ntflr.i VilA^Hm village-, 
The two temple in scripciorj^ are dated Kollain^ SS2 tl’707 a. i>A 
mill refer to ghes of I ilid to TirLiVftAkittappfcrumAl. Kifr- 
T."i6vit:i&tiptH!fnfEiA ftud Siviikli mi Atrihiun; while tb|t piflur 
iiu crip lion frum Pnnantftra Vila^tn rttgi$l 4 tt a gift of land by 
two private dniwi** to Viratfirejapill^yir &f Utnunthari Viliyam 
and is dated Kolkm KS7 (1719 a. n.| 



Tilt fourth inamptfon was copied from die northern outn;r 
wall of Eht first prdMtra of the Sthapbnat^m tam-plc f SerhTn- 
drnm,. Though damaged at the end, !t records like rnatiy otiler 
inscriptions in the asms temple, n gift. of land to tlje God Umj- 
stand* -Sabik-Tirnirwmi *et up by Arabian TkrLmfcfJiTpei) of 
StvAbitoatijmlnnu Its date is liollam 301 {1126 a, f).j s onJ 
though it hid been copied in the your* 1093 n&d .I03b.ii, e^ 
h freeh fcitampsK* ^ >t was found nfioamjary for purposes of 
reading and publication. 



The fiEth niacxiption waa obtained from the abuse rafter oE 
tike JayantlSamra KHnnfdpa in thr SuchTildram temple r and man- 
tioriK that the TtrAhn^n chief o* fhkUillsm eoneecrntLid fJod ^.mibha 
ivifh Court in Kolkm 7fi5t (1594 n). Though, in the 

previous iuiscriptTona it is (ttated that the deity Umiakcmthu 




3 



Tlmininti Wfu. afjt UJJ in 301 Lll2t> a, i>i), wc dr 

not ItQoiY if the tTvvi differ 'll] purpose- 

The *ixtb Inaeripticn] d&tfid Kollam 413 ClS-hhl a, 

fU^rfiVLid (Hi UK south bttHC of thy £>uLVAhluit^yiL temple, OucbiL 

drum, but uk Til l l atone bearing ike record is mostly cniteddet 
under: jCttt.ii tlm ground, its purport could E *Ot be known: imr w ti 
easy (5 rtawoe uud bringf it to light without ooEinitkiiflbk labour nut 
b^Hvy expense, 

The Heveiich inscription chough cupiud before hi 10113 >n e.. 
wftfi recopied for purpose uF rusidirfj.. It is hmes'lUJcd On the pitlm 
in ftfout of tbii PfllidiulingA tlirine nt Suck! ndrum. it is ^ Lite a 
KolLim ;)Mfi (1411 l).), mid status chat King M itr 1 1 ftjjtJnvji r mu n 

dwiriii^ prosperity, fn mo om! Iqti# life, oonitriKted the Sabha- 
wiatiftipa. Tiie urine inscription m also seen aigrAveci on the eastern 
will of the SitOsul jrr'izi'dfii of slit- Sncblrulriim temple. It is prft- 
Uihle thru ihe menu; effigy li«lt tint SalkarviAtoj to umj'^ u sculp- 
tun*] portrait of tile kins who constructed the smue. 

Tire tivgli lii (iLe is dated KdIIlilll 3 ill (1113 ft- U-), nlld refers 
to a gift of ^v-giity^nfe Achqhii by it certain Kfnrkui Vikmiui 
Cb&tnd^VBII U» the God of Swiblmlrftin fcn r tlm snke of offering Jjlr-ii" 
ENirantfr when Hiwcifraif m'e diluted 

The ninth is found on tile western W:i5l near llu; 
it &ichl udmiu, a nil meufkims :t gifi by ClmLknttindnl aliax (■ Jiiiu ■ 
u]uTudatyti'k the Nnmbifa;tiy fl t n * ^ Iru I > At,srJ.y ■ f two hundred 
for dully tirwamutu to SLidilLnjrtitimdnyii KidiHi 
aid : tar feeding three ifrdAnutts during l-lic Lime of ike taj^ts. The 
iat-j of the inscription is Kjd1Iu.hi 452 (L257 a. m). It ia cunjec- 
tuma tlmt this Vlfa-P^mlyu i^Jike stride Juts r mmum-Vrin Fund}* 
wUu Ic^ii Ills rule il bout l be luiildle of A- D. 1^03 and coistimied 
10 rule sit lens! till lSJ'l-n. Most of kit unsdriptiolitt tuune ItW 
Tinnt;veHy, lLliunfld, Murium, ttitd l 3 u.dukkOtpi| :m<l thu rnooi' 1 

mentioned above itt lire firsi of itf Jtkid di«a>VflT*3 in Tutvaneofe 
Inscription* ton uiLil ljEcvou though old und aru dated Kolkim 
(Uj3 A. u.) dTui :ilU (11C5 jl E-) respcstively, uru uiilortumitelj 
JaOvtffOil juid fnigWAIltury ; wllfLt? twelve EunJ tbirtMU eopiud from 
tile Pvirak.N-liiLipframAn tcinpk' man' the Suchindrttm choultry nn 
eonipbt- und in jl htir atiitu of preset vfltinM. The fouiier datec 
Kolittirt Jtl'l (1S2 El A. TJ.) i^iyteVB U jfift of l^ird by tile Atinimlh 
of Audui idmiti co Drimkn Emp^rumiiiari white tlin La tear dates 
Koildiu -lOil (1235 a. d ) rueordu n gift of ten jirkAu for hurutti^ i 
■pcrjtt'LUiil li^li t in the temple o£ tl US ssLtnc God, 




4 



Of the Miiit, two wore From the Kanvft-Bhflftflmtj temple, Cape 
Comorin, olil- c-E which ie in Slftajalirif Gtautba mid mentions the 
VijiipuiAgiui Vlranfleinihr, Atchutartty^ Rau'ifjn Rijsi, 

K}*hiiii Ifiya, and Rimn Kiyfl: while the Other though damaged 
i\i£wa to tin? Chain king ItftjtiTLrlrn Ch^H, The eevenLGtmth though 
n fragmentary ncid dftffiugtid Vfttto|uttLi record in siaaittirtftnt referring 
it Joe* to the Ch&]n king PnruL^tan V«rirui. The iuBt cite ina- 
axilied nL the? lHUk> of the sl^til L&i ei I hfft At Chatt-BTinllr and dated 
Jialbim 446 (1127 A., 0-) Ik in V n (tynju Lfiij und rrfere to the build- 
ing of the temple in thnt platen 

In mills Lion Li> tbuio inscription}:, a copy of one copper pliltc 
recurd received on requisition from the District Jud^, a^errCll, 
weis nlw uxiumiKd; mid it wue found dfUcd Kollain hSG (lGhl a.u.) 
rugwlaring n girt under Royal: command of ten temples including 
the KritimuLKoil ot V atai&fecari to Sri-Ranga ftftju PnLlar i'ambtfiJ 1 
of Alvlf-tif Uiingajt, Whether tlie pints is genuine dr spurious it 
a matter to be decided after porteum) inspection, 

A systematic recording o£ tlie iu^tfincione on Cliriutkii Tomb!! 
nod monuments in TcftvancOre, having nistork^l or uirhiieologioal 
iinportaufij seemed u grunt desideratum; and with the kind per- 
misHinn oE Government [vada titvrer indent tetter K. O C. ??o r 
3 ?/E dated 23n.l June ]£$:!), mens were Eaten towan’da the dose 
■ if tin; >'rfir in tbut direction; nud the text of twelve insaiptiane wns 

JiOted dr.nvlj by tLHJr 

CnnsorvatJoia- 

Am in she previous ye*r t the i| nation c£ Lfm prt'scrvmtloii oi 
undent relic* received my attention; and k was recognised a* part 
of fht- obligation a of the Department to rtctmui letad :o Government 
ihem! n-LOmmieirn that Ji j>£k?h red to stand ira urgent lined of cure und 
reecu*. Considerable im|K;tu!s wui given U> the work oF raiiBcrvAtUiii 
oE tlie ancient mcmuniftih of the State; nud my a tiggefitkao For the 
enaction of a suitable canopy to the? stone image taf Huddlia. at Ma- 
VAlikkir*, and for the prCMmation if the wqi is of art in the ISttu- 
mftnftr temple wom kindly nqaepted 1 ty Government Government 
were alsu recjuysted to romidar the ilesimbility of declaring ihu oJd 
L'nlnCi-* Jit KntnieL, P;idinani1kh(iJjurum f Pn( u kkuln Apart! ail(l Kri- 
eliiminiraiD, and :i!uo the MatLiii TambLirm Koikkalnt N^uvjnayAd 
uh Ri irtoiitiid inonutneaith: na ? bf^ifin; bmldlailgH of liiaEtvrjtil anti-rest 
uml ititporiaiwu, they ImVe F right to by preserved and kept in per. 
ajjstnont good repair, 





To iprr. jMjp 1 Y 



’\lVr..)viwfc frtim CbftnMliliM f«. 




Arohltootnit 

An aspect of ’vork on which hquu? Lunaiilemhle labour was 
spent in Hie year related to th.fi further study and investigation of 
temple architecture in K&rahL with special reference to Trftvfmeor*, 
The rules and principlBB laid down in the SllpaS nitron for the coil- 
ittruciion of the JVsmatifirfr Maiitajm, NAlamhatom lyuTrambahrm} 
arid livtitkaji'iwra were gtillc [hrcnigh ink] noted down; and the 
E-Cudv of die p^muipln* of rLTchituctLire iti fioiitnuboia temple then- 
Ire) wan mien up towards the end of rbu yenr- 

^cmlptiire 

Tha exploration of ancient ndiea in (he year brought to light 
thu exiMrfnee of useellcbt tpMUIUUa of old wood ncuLptiine at two 
placet, Choimttarft Abd VstCrkkurfmj^iLin; and Hume imiiaj demble ditto 
Wat spent on the GxiiEnmntH}ii mid iduuj float inn of the Beenes und 
objects iepre*ented by them. Around the central shrine of the 
Sira Simple At Cfrocakkwrfl f (UV s«ll Curved in excellent workman- 
ship h few mieeelhmeouB scemy aud episodes in the lives of Sira, 
lilnift, and Krishna displaying « uniijM? f cliarm mid beauty. 

They arts — 

l r Tha Ttadave daqee of Sirjtj 

2, The weddinc uf FfkrriLti; 

3. The battle ot Arjnna with Stvn in the gti'se of a. 
hunter; 

4- Sira's penance; 

ft r The wedding at lironpadi, and the f*anduvfiji* mmn^i 
far the same; 

0. The killing 1 of fiiriiuyJL; 

7- Select sco.ics fmm liaiijiy:iiu sudi Hi filUiavayam- 
vinaL the battle wadi iSaii; bTtw in Havana's court 
Uttj 

•8. MohiflhfiBUfii MurdaLia^ 

a,' K6]lya Mar'hiLiii; 

1ft. Rultntft$i and Krishna 3 fled 

11. Atlanta Sayan h. 

Ia toe other plttcc Vctd^ktifiingjini, the woud-wurk is done 
skilfully over tht: ceiling of the BaliikappUTa, enl on some detach- 
ed jjaihIh which nrc in tin; course of Iwing fitted up in the temple 
that is renovated there* Almost the whole of IJhlgurjifai and Riiu- 
flyjitia with the lending episode in thmn are illustrated is tbew won- 
Jarful Hpudmant of wood sculpture preserved at V«ttikkul*ng)iin, 
temple, On esm irunatioo it ia found that the arc displayed in the 




6 



work m both tempi™ has not only u tii^l t order of exndlunue I ml 
iLlw distinct cEuunctariiiticif of wi >trk nun islnp . tbu taryi'igs of tliu 
funn of DivLtic be<ugB and iLairetniifliirs Juivcil mbl iitiinofl rhythm, 
and symmetry. Enwyioaiie (U|>iet'Hl in them. h:^ n £ha#a vf feel- 
ing of fcrKR9c«[ulentah»m , ami iiumdii nr apirltitAl Okliilumtiem- 
Aliiwc nil, dll! re is* JL sublimated humanum &wUug free £il*y in thu 
porbrnyal of the different I'liarsctr'Si’Fi jl^l! their emotions. Tlie 
figure* Law a peculiar eharm t?f dandling, the ^yw, hdkh, lips, chin, 
himds, £mst;r^ ]itid lrg!*. readviiig rhe grated* nUunt.icm, At the 
fame rime, t lie kuJmice and ikjlef in wh cli uht.^ am uasit mid tliuv^qui- 
FLtM rhythm and beauty of lEnir representation ulM greatly la ilieir 
artistic churn i. Supreme uxtunple* of t wonderful combh'utHvn of 
IjOLll RtifMf (beauty oT obj.ehvH ivpre jelitntiou ) and llnifi (grime of 
enwitiuBit aspreipioji). iWe Epwiinnts nf wood sculpture lams u 
grandma; and Mililiudfy of COinsptiijn, ruryly Lu bn found (die when:. 

Iconography- 

Another tLLJ | jLsi'tai ill work of thu dupin' tinollt ill tile 3-1111]' related 
to the coLUjotiu'U :llu J investtgutioil of imiilnblu limtcrinla relating to 
S&lfkjrtliiia. 1111 uHHiugrnpEnc.nl form in whitll lEm original Vinlt em 
is worshipped ilk cuckraiug within lliru l be jxnjtml in li 13 aF thu whole 
UDisnersej jutii na t]]c |ii)seiitjjil indEThdualls iiicloKe.l in the wtnnb. 
Thin Hirjiiiya G :lt L-I l; 1 ! form la depicted I nr couLTEte niuliiittimi iu 
die Svf-t-tjrdnui, a eviid owiil bltflkstonu containing a foaid! Animo- 
tiicc, die fosoiiJiiUid part being s tripud with goflenJeolour, which bath 
by its form mul iippcuruNw, is oiu Luuntly 7 fitful to kyiabnZlfte tlit'nnyu 
(dnrlili 1. Fairly L'xbau^tivu inEnrMmlkrt] tlh- diaiiu, f^i- 

Uuvs. HI id innrk* of uv^r eighteen variKi*.-* of Salnf/ramti r.itj/uthci- 
.vie Ei 1 It-'ir tc*purtiive rnluu iu wurslaip amt rilmd wcl'u «i jI lin-ti-ij l 
and a Ltulc pi'ujrared u 1 1 tin* snhjucl is given in Appendix U. 

Mu (Eras. 

Till! work ill lirtfct yciil' ljij MiidrtU lisid ath'iletcd thu attention ot 
Bumu of tile lorelgn seiLolnr^ stud orwritHliata who commended tbu 
usefulnoaa iif uiy rraaidu. 1 * in that JLdd. This year, u i-oneicletiLblo 
part oE my time was ' punt in pursuing my invefsdgntiutis 111, [hut 
direction, puLtieukriy Hit* Tay/riv Ihidsti a found iu vogue in 
Jhiraja- About one hundred and eight .bjWWLf are noted lu is- 
peculiar tu the Midnylijiun speaking country, of winch it ulmrt of 
tin; principal mitt iviis pneptircd in tile year. 

These .1 fudt'tis Iti-Xz symbols. Elf tin: hand I'rph-BL-litiiig by visitdEi 
eigns, (lift- expre? hiejoj: ui an itje:i ur tUe siiggxwdou ui :iu id*Li by 
i L-flcmliliLtjCe H^r toirYiartioin They form ;i iftnrt ejE Lmgu ina, ^nd 

have ijiecnhni 1 ay mbaliB m iiul| sigiii.!' eancc iu I f ■■ T tb nge. 





h!k]i:'tla.' fr<iui t t!li,Lbu]nn^;irj- 



Titjcic Miirlra-. 




f C< fry rig hi) 





7 



Tin 1 t-LTHa Mmlra a* h i r remind fruKi' Hindu religion* VFjfiuhulury, 
amd rtimifiiT? in it* tochitk'ul iMjciejitiiu^ mnl nmnni-itiou tliu inis*e^ 
thait nits jrpvyii In tllu 1 Lftl h I* duriUe tho rixpositiaii af fin idmsi- .1 litWsO 
Hfiufaas nrt' rift! - *iini!:tr fu H unroof yphicn, iithI nn- wore 1‘xprESKi.VL' 
and ijowhtFliI irt cllucl tliiin tiw f fipiJceu l;m^nafjn+ f ' In «>i ril'd roiifjklj\ 
they hill intn tlii'EH 1 limad di vi- ion si 2 — 

1 Vaidir 
3 . 'Tdnirtr. 

S. (Minivan in Art). 

A cnrriul reM'iin-lt hi the Jii=ld ruvinlud tin- ttF reDo^nined 
Atmirn- in Art urn) lOS hi TatUvit- Tho VditUe MndrAt ilih? mom 
■rir Wfi siifiiH o. 'tidiinitioii-f employed t F i r^nTatn the ntuvnn, 

rhythm ji r<l intodltiuii in tile dllunliti.g of Vtda# by lir^liiiiinK. To 
express symbolically oiu i V idisi* urn I >entiinj?nt* is die cilijunE uf rhu 
iiudrtiat Mid liftW iiseriited ivirtienEur prftUires (>■ rs'preiultC 

Stid eXpretiii itiffcimit ?snJit i,jiiL'i 3 fc>, tt' 1 1,1 £ I'jiti’t hi; etMi^nveid in 
k[k£Uii£c Lh g5«i turjfell y exprei-Hwl by tllC sU^arstiVu ftymlmls uf t lie- 
Jfvdy<is t and SO they cun It: ailld ro be rllOtt: cfftitivt :nu) ipn|ire*siw 
than the letter that ftuiin cli ■ nlphitbEil o\ 

Folklore, 

HeropiIjaiPK tbc : 1 I-jlij u hm< ^ of tblkbru in Tr iviinciire and in tin: 
rent of Ivor*! n h tmA the imp mu 11 t fiber it FwMk in tlm ailtnnd 
history of the people. HQim- limvFuI wort: wjis ilojie in till! yrur 
wnrdrj n preliinin»rj'*in’nia(ieiLtjriti and study of itviiiliiblu material 
in die country. Folklore in TrftvumiGra n* in liiti rrst of Kiua|a 
eortipmei of folk tnwii lions, i estivate, will's, customs, sniKrstitions 
iite: fiTKl inchtdiu* in itjfi scope the study nf popular arts und craFts, 
Of proverbs, legends and norit^ *migs, mldlusj artfl superstitions. 

My uuiijj JittytiLian was ilifyclod CO wan is a jpnnjral and prdhiiinjtry 
aurvay oi Foik songs iis llie Stule; ..md far mi uiiu cuLtltl ^theri 
Lh^TS ar? ovi:r SiiO ricinws eviMi now -exl ii rt I irt Jv Or-i 1 My reseiirctiGN 

in thiu dirisTion, muck: MU: £«g| eItui t tin; aungs* iivuitublo in Trivnm 

fiOTw tu't oE it niriod kind, and ran be cLiMnifiud bnnullr into 
ii- 4 iHc-E j^rruipi*. 

L dt.ilinp wifli Ptt/U/tic enwl It^ndury history f 

surilj iw ii urtt flukfi/tinttj/ftaffti mu] S&nttinn (i{\- 

$ .Sol]^ hi fniiiae uf Goil or invoking Divine help, tsudi 
ns Skiff cis Ltiul other pruyer auoajTLton& In 

ihuir Em I LIl'c Iiltd ^Ullg UEiLiilly in 17 very hontt* 

' |li. Mil'll 1 . tSuhi' i-f Etii Iv-n. 1 IihLElhIlj, ]. ■■j il-.'ii h,u hdo> Ixvfj iwir.ni; in 

Sidle tml ri'iHjnti lhJ tn«ir limine j'liivnr 1 WLllilbe' liiiii] riiuJiTri ky ih'i •h^"p 

lk|>- Hi.ijii' i ti i.i£ fi i>vnrii|ijLd'-t- 




3, 

4 . 



6 

7. 



Konga inculcating inciral! instnsntkm, nnd didactic in 
pi]r|'K33H. such flft lltumpipfittu -nnd Arir.it}. A^utr}. 

Songa inculcating VeMntin truths and Saitraic in 
nature *m V(illu}-{iTp&$u T 

Soagis dealing with Heroic cxploica, sycli an Valakkan- 
Twtipwrtln FA# if, ^prtunijtir^n £>ri tfu, 
KrrtL'iklitfi -Pitt-tri Pd#Ui ctd. 

Scnge of bE&tOTiciLl 23ia [Kjrt^inoti such ;«•» jl/snjcipfcAnmp 
fifdri/nmpdt^ F/iPtppA^fuia^ 



fVoEeiis.ionfl] find religions — 

(flij $&fitr(ii\go.p]in$v 7 suing tin OtiMdioiln of tnarrs- 
sgi: 3 anniversary etc. among NsEabuiliri Brahmins and 
Kalufrt.tpiylis. 

(^] j. dffu song in tha dramatic pcrfor- 

manefl L?-i.l kvl Fttt&u, where ilmcing and 

noting piny ii prominent part. 

(c) Brtiknagip&tfa resembling tbe MOga of the 
T&li* in I’crt-dj; ry^ poets, rtliri aUn' tbe chanting nF 
A’dfltn-F?di by Nambudiri ftrahmmF, sung on special 

oocbriull * flf dOUtBHtlc eemnoninK nucti ms rnfiirmge, 
etc. ainOtig tho higher tm ton ill Malabar, 

(if) Pdf}u Hung iit m ri.;liginns abow dealing 

with die killing of the mitMifttfir.Dirokft, 

(tfj Pufltivar Paffto (t)er|x;iit songs) lionga sung in 
prtj£e o£ serpent* CO pHuswu tburllr 

(/) Pdivrrjtatfu to ward oil tlie evil «yo onri 
tfiiEtiLiof of enemies* 



[fl) Ma7ii\JLTpG.$it whom tllo ntory oE Gktlappali* 
{.wav'. i& told in mmg, 

(A) VilfanpAjfu siong aung for tbo lirmlicEirtoii oF 
evil dour by Edun luh! for whos^. annihilation H is 
Llltembid. 

(i) Aivarkaiift^a nong mng to the 1 iicco]njM,o> 
meat of dance wtilch is generally performed in fl-ha- 
drakali tempter, 

(/) Khiitirak&tpitftii or Ka{mitiutht Fdt{\i, Suaga 
propitiating Devi or Bhadrakiii sung by tiia proftm- 
bkhiilI aing^ri and ilruimne™ of the tcmpL^- 

(t) Songa of the vilLuye aathj. 

lo^rs culled and on tig on ucoasiom of their 

JlM. 




9 



9 . Song* (if g musenmjji I ilhiI (Mticrtnmmcnt einc-h Oyu- 
^[niiiLi, Kinnrn:itii^ivt''i iv«rslttrpn1H-H T 

Cti', 

y. PdraplijlUU ol«oa.w! swing* i!LLIl|£ in p'flise uf Bhagm- 
vntlli, 

in. iL'citi suiigs >irjh =ls SastfanpAffu or Ayynppunpattu,, 
wburu tlir-re is n. good lL-:u I of refertllCe iibout ll fce 
Isanti' jam Rajas of I'ravAarfix:* 

11. Ml iry v Hut icon* .kid(^ ' Idling with same uspwt i if *ocin I 

Ijr.i 4 if titter t 33 Kfmjfi 

On cL>d< i hxili n iiiiLtifui, it Eh found that th**e si.in.gn haw mu 
unadorned ii.ivitt mid js-iin [liiL'iLy “■ dicta m, nul ;m [in |Tsnfii(M»ed 
iffwbtet* mrl'Jy. In tin :ir ringing. T&la, time m^Eiiry, piava 
an inip(irtiLLi i part; and 8wtisp ch^ uti||i nut utyf to toe 
amsniTwyinamt 4 dtni-ccj wb-sn a mvifineft* mid rhythmic movement 
cf ntcpa nil nddud gm.tt tn tliL‘ tnu»ic. lUiiffowrned by any 
laws of vcPHiLLL-.Ltioii t thw eonj'shivre m uiJiwrality nJ' KHuriuiuiii, 
cniubilling. ill than 1 Jfrjtyfi(tnue ur .Yleludr). different MttV&v (Muodw) 
jithI liaza? (oniotiotisi). 

Tcj the ii3ifLi)iiiiri;in. :lte wine of Uicaiu aaiigfc ujusists ii i 
there primiikVi’ H-pmifcmiroUs music ttiai L-i itli flg «]t:i- u lic^ nljldi arc 
eonm tif tilt uniat In-iLsured ii 3 J 5 of IvoittLi art. I.Juiijim 

in Liwir HpontiLnuiU 1 im.i be LlLty, dirty have 11 wide junge pt otic- 
[ins; tttcl »to iiltaifiJiiLiUg -H Itummi . iiwujiiel Lte Lliituvrng light 

on cauditionH oii pilsuitLw life uml thought. “The imuwi liter- 

UKting fefttUIV yf the® fa ;ha; tluL-ii vucui muikHlitii are ^uIth] 
with tto tllOOghfi cif It u- mu ii y ur +jrG<mupnnyi]i£ instrument, but 
are formed tun certain luituk-nl rii vi Li'H modes. In short, the 
doium.irl nHv tliut wu find in eIl^ songH ie that tbnir JsHUic 
fa ms-Liiietm:, arising fratu the rteue-sity inluereiit in tha people 
VO pEK i In; voice which natnro ima giwn them an flmt they 

nia y gjvO 1 'H | )LV ’H it>ll I'J ll(#U' ill UGS'IllOfit I t'lf: I Li.jl Ll -J ;'i II : I fiaMjlig* 
for wni^h tbrtir ia inadii^ilftte. Tln> I'n^ttll isig fruit of rbi^ 

inatiTit;!. is tiir sm-nst nivlody ui fa: Folfcafiihg- which in mi nil- 
COEisrabil^ Mt fjuite ill (jrjutrujrf with till- (-JTiitiririii of tiinHaons 
nrLB(i(!3i in Kongfl rt^ b_\ traiuctl musid nn- '- h ji my boot' isitrti^r 
ill thbi tramn'tini I lw in.-c- iliin tH« inn’ll imlipiv nss limes 
i ' lirflnir L-tc, him only rtliiicd i hal vrsti ii»iiK rtf I Is-fr nifloEliLiflEri th^ felt 
mnstc i)t Kcc;i!-i. 

WurtSiip an rJ ritual in Kerala. Teoipiei 

The wort oisnucuencml LhI; yenr on dtir i^ubjwtE true ronr 
tinned, gnawer ulti-sition Ik:t 3 ig |uiir^ 111 tin: eolhfitiun of siifoi- 

asutiu'n the dulioralti jtrOfuvMl-* of kanple fii (i &1 and 




tllC employed it) ll \U Nome. As is seen from «s£tant prac- 

tices tliu old pruned lilv IniiiS -.JowTiJ frtr I’fyi ib aa follows: — 



1. < ‘lt>:ii:is.i!i^ of rbe jjIitohmI body- {NiidiftidiiusUti} 

2. Consecration of (flu YCWcl holding oblftl'irffi (Sfirjiftfl- 

3. SeiE-tvi iriil Liji consisting in conceiving Cixl ua re- 

girting in utiuiwJf in the form of Annin or supreme 
self ( 

4. Offering nml couseCratiilg (Jiu flrtlS dlntttd for the 

fjfeviitfl. ( Pitftfikidpmta ami Pitfifj/i/i/a). 

5. Oniouivtlipr else Dr'vafcl in a eymboliciLl material furm, 

( Mui Ipnttii ) ■ 

6. Invocation of tlw hlfirtti oi lman. (<4odfcuiA) 

"■ OoneecmtLnjf fiixl spiriruidisLn^ ctir dillcrenl jiarte of 
ths body »F tho DfvaSa- [SjLkulikur.LOdi) 

H+ MoiLi'iH uui (DhyAlla) 

9. OoaaiitTrttion and Spirit LinltEiLlion oE the il liferent 
omninuNti., wwiponi nr AyittlKun I'tc. yf Lbe MurLti. 
(QliostHiMadiiiy ) 

10 . OETcring water, muidut iLntvo-v-i. noosed food oh 1 . 

11. Dedication to use llnrrii. 

12. End yf wot ah ip. (ismUjhLiUi) 

13. I Idstiwliincni from tine M drtti conception, (Udvi- 

14. Tlie cnnceptioci tX the M&rtti am the forailgais Pam- 

rnriLni;i and (W residing ILL all created being!) in- 
eluding tilt Siilhakn. (ljay&aLtr$ J, 

‘l he diagrams of the imp of tint Mudra? ui Tdtitrk worship 
iVUG n-lsu drawn and nre rqirodnoed in the font of li ehiur^ 



Mlacelliuifloue. 



An important institution which haa a hoary antiquity and 
which i* hist dimLiiponring nUrjiCLcd EJiy notice in the year. "It 
relate to iF Katcu'' which devoid uf its old chami still hpl'vevcr in 
* t'i* VP U'tupliL!^ id I ho ihstc, audio which the tradition* of r lie 
0<d elasBlcul Indian iifninfl .;nv; even now prft*s , vcd + Tlu-rc i< 
reference to i-t in the Tamil Cfaudic Uhilapp a-f is tirafti ; and lli- 
BurlptiynnL evidL'iscctJ ure no. wauling to conSrm ite unt^iiitj, 
A men 1 1 * of relifjlflufl und popular « 1 1 Lcatirm and mtcrtuiliml, 
itidi uborv aih of public tx!]ifiurel]i|> ; the K'auo in TrflVAIiCdrc US 




J1 



in th*: rest, of 3'l'.:L';i3lL kid :i powerful inftLieiVOfi Oil Lhe Sfdat 

fabric; in aUlen iIlvu. My rujiiiitfaci on il:u Subject of Katfou- 
fca]i in Kfcn[n, opened my eye* tc the extensile iiinLueiL^ which 
(iv ^bt'CLEtu' hod on the development of the old uoiditloni of 
histrionic; art in tins Iniiil ; iilut nt the instance ot the Dcwjllj, au 
end^nvour was made in tin.; vi ur i<j study and note down itg ntL- 
cieut and irhitnic&ifetk nit- 

KuUu is pf three kinds; — 

j. NiiO^IvJir Krtttci VL'Iiert & ^urt^iyir (n indy of the 
Nstsblyfir caati;} id E hu nitur, Eiti ■ I iii vdlish the stury o£ Sri Kfiflhyn 
B HMiilitoi] with ibitscjii:^ nuit mctllig,, -Six kitni? of dunce were 
noted in tbEr jierToi’ininicw. 

3 P Pi Hbflsdbntii JiuiLn which is a tnonolc^na eonakLinj' of 
a combine J recitniion of alld muiinaiita ry on piissayse from tb* 

Pura^Rfl nnd Itihusae, 

S. luejininu coiithmcd uriing, where men (Cba- 

kldyttri^ and women hLtn i part, imd in which there is 

a ®mbinuticm of tuqrr=Ltiou iiml acting with djiudii^ and 
gestures, The only place where die v^mices of Kiitly i ttum ores 
even now in TriLvwotv, lb UtlJikUikni. in_ the luicintiL 

temple o£ which, (hura it perfoiniaiKx: uvory year lifting for 12 ni- 
MretEfmes chyii- 

■'ft- 

What really iiiLiTnaitfi tliir ;tiith|iinrfm in tin? threefold vurie- 
ties of Antai mentioned nb^e, in the perfection of the art of 

j4iWiin<ij« and cfvt' elaborate uae of the Mudrds thnnd poses) aud 

gestures which with alight modifications were borrowed Inter in 
K(iridhi& (the Pantouiiroo). 1 lie A'ftfiyQtfafli. in imrticuUr, is a 
unique nttil wonderful itJFuitui inn where there inn jumnga com- 
bination of N&fjta (floiing;., A ^ amya tbiestui'E), mid Nriita [dancing], 
‘witii 0 [m.rvM Mi ms partition of Hh&m (mond) itfid Ram or 
emotional expression. 

Silly-four Mvdr&t. went folM bug time mi ] .by ed in the Riitiu, 
thirty-sev^D -■'■iMgb .mil 1 !H h -h .jj i lj i m . ti .Alrttlt'sit iif in- L kit-Ei liiiw 
becli uniilvil by mi,- I^int- 1 1 ih -'.>■ n uni ^ < 1 1" iln ln-.itl- eight gbuii-eit 
of the tyc; . £i.\ moTi rm.-n^v thi- ■< rim 3 tour |ki^rK n>f the 

ntek Co^Bther Wtrh lin- IicokI an. I i !:mc-ir>^ hteps of tin.- It^ 

more or leas compbn- 'Jn- ^oc nud rhytktn of the gesture or Awri- 
maytj sf thy £ui(v, 

ULoupfli orijrlimlly incsuit fcjr the pui|dihLliun tf die (!adfi 1 Lf.c 
sfiittv h>'.K htii-n r he- lir»rhiir?or df dm hathitkaft in TrftvauoOre: m:-d 




13 



die belief iLndeiLvin^thi-^^llta&Tit. intstitntitm it- that, roritutioiin from 
die ftlJ'l hik&sd s ilre us vdlWi i f nv in obLiii'uy *:»|vKtion 

fnv men n& Divine sarvicin, and are a ptiwtj'ful cbeci uti the growing 
matorinJiHin ol' tliii people. 

A Lunn^ otber Ltiiinn 4<f wort in ihe year, proiuhitLE mention 
may be anju le of the progrfl&B nude in the compilation uf the Tt>pi>- 
gnpihic&l Eist of iiifteripnonts in Urn S.nte, and yi' (];■,: Uiljliy^riipJir 

of cht sources -if Truvancfrra HL*rory + 

Publications 

Tha booklet on the art of ffnihatnli urj" in ally printed foL* prb 
valB uroilatJiju was. cons Ldersibly 1 ’y^ ii.eij md eJitnrmid in; tllu 3 't 3 ir f 
'Hid ia J>ein^ niinStt ready (or diairibn loh and mK j . vul.YlI Pan 2 
ofthi; TrnVuUtxirf Archaeologies! I series Ilur ijetn published; w El lie tile 
material for Ynl. VlII mnaifitirkij, of tbo iflecriptiumi] enll etions of 
thi? Diei»rtm?nt (nr the k-st Four years (IlGti — llOtf) km hem £uL 
rawly for (ho pm**. ’!lw publication u£ llm Arcbtiiwlo-pca] ?hutit -oF 
the GovtT&nieilt GeisOttft roodvsd id«] tin? roguEur nt.rention ijf the 
Departinfllitt Mini lIh iilBcriptiuus ruJutmg to Ivyiin A^ibaJ and &T 
YallnliiliflPt KoJti were printed with their te-St mid purport lji Mata 
yulnm, and dissaminaOid for popular knowl(jdg?L 

In vQiuilndon, I lme only to quote whin Sir John Milt- 
snail stated thirty y^nm ujjo. "ft i t 4 Lie intention of the Dujj^rt^ 
mtnt to ubuvr y tar Ly year wluiL uiaterihis bivi> been mid am collect- 
ed uUtetly, *0 t)]Ht otlitr Ltbouturr: may know bofc- tliev ran add to 
thi^ heap, and if posdlilo tlmmaelirr'S build it Elm nlti unite etli- 

fti-fl, tin- mutcriak being therefore silently aoeiirnnWed l. ir the futnre. 

1 1 l Other Wji ikj it is Lite i-Qtendoii by means uf ih" ■; >j llu I reports 
allow tbit the Dtipurttitunt so far Fnian looking to mouopcJise 
the Gold of rSHi.'nrOt we leu DM* and, fusei IH fi hs^ tIk- Co-ypumtioil ed 
every earnest student mitt learned ;*t ubiety 11 in T rfiYai i core ”to uttract 
wider and more abiding attention ro the gifatui trisisnrf EmOsin of 
iTtdait relti* 11 in rt^ 1 Smtio. 

Subjoined ifi a statoniant of the re3ei|iLr aud nsjjend Lturg of ihf 
n^mrtraent. 

ItEOetrTH., 





Kb, 


€h. 


a 


ijsdp o£ Flmtos 1 — *1+ 


16 


a 


0 


Sftle t>£ AreEnwlof^eal p'.ibtisaiiioiib ... 


W 


27 


l> 


^ule u£ Ek-InHitF Of Hindu kuiLOi|rauhv 




s 


u 


M'iwttl Imnai Li-i * TT '+n 


*1 


l.i 


u 



Totul— l&l 2 Q 




13 



E IPKSBITIIEC. 

R h . Oil, C. 

... iaao o o 

... ^065 3 7 

... 8fl3 IS D 

... ssa l; a 

TotaL-n .US7 11 U 



1 JiiWi! the ]inu(>:ii' to Lk-j 

Y-mJf ni(]&L obedient servant* 
H. Vakitdetj PonuviLj 

adent if Ar-ihmufagy* 



\ fj[ ^Superintendent of 
Aiv1j:io3^e;v 

Pujf (jF iSif. Ektibl i&Lnsiciit 

CuuiueeiKuiD 

Travel Liu^r ud Eo Tvftcua; ..» 




14 



Libl of places viaited by the Superincotidont 
in Hl»7 



Ghinifam HO? 

ii :il in^ravii ti pe ■ , :li1m m 
N ajjuit’Oil 
bln-tn tzfcii.ru 
Veftikm]u 
Kawti 

Quiltin 

Murid kku lam 
PuthemhiiiL 
DfianU 

Chonaktarfl 
KuTij^]' 
ttaflflJrupfiJJi 
iiitonni larppfijii 
J/ajaram 

Kupiy i tulm n 

Qkkti 

Klittnrjjslli 

Parttf 

Piiljippnfairi, 

KcUtjijrpupiiLt 
Va^k[i|iAfilini 
0 arkttfai'nm 
riumk5t.Ni 
M 

A 1Ll'P]jl-v 

Pur Iiutm.-L itJL 

MiilUiuiilvl 
Vara poly 
Ks^iyura 
EttumJiirtlr 

Liei of places visited by Hit Pandit 'Aail&tant 
during 1107. 

Kuchma- 

Silt IjIticI rjini 

har&Gtpkain 

Slichlndnmi 

Tamarabilmi 

Cu|h-jf!o[iiurj^i 

iuupittiyuiiu 




Lithic inscriptions copied during the year i!07 M- E. 







Litbic, inturiptians oopisd during the jetr HOT M. E 



IS 



■r. 

r±L 

In 

i 



B 

ei 

a 



t c 

p. 



S?4 

B-“ 3 
i? ^ 5 ' 

e J 

fl ^ 



4 



Str A i 

= 5 -3 

-. ly 

1 4z 



s |l 

5 TV& 

s £\£ 

VC'S 



d J * 

i * £ 

&U 

l. £ . 

* £ 

p ^ _. ri 



jSf » t w 

ll.f 

S ■=) jg 

5 - £ rj 

Jj 1 



■sgi 



■IH- b Sj- 

«u rfT 3 a 



* e * 

£ spH 

f sg 

-^■-0 ^ 
ifi 



i. SD £' - 
£ " = ? 
£3 3 ? 

a ss * 



pa 

I 

u 

'k 

is 

' d 

-3 



m-. r 
Q T] 



i-S’feJr- 
_ 5 e 

a P 



?_. c 

L «"^ 

■5 ^ 
-: ■■ 

■c 4 



■3 5 .t c 



_j a_ 

- .O 



lib 

ill M * 



i 






3 , £ * 

jj- L» * J* 



,r o a 



_ >rt q 

a B^i '3 

o b 



£1 

rZ 






^ jIJ "** - 1 .“ Li— i 

- | S |t 5 

■f. 5 § .g & 

| J 1 .2 * s 



■crt 



-it 



e rt 

1 , J 3 
-li ■*» 

X C 

3 2 
efl C£ 



3 

H 



-jG a 
£0 

1 " rd 

. &L 
7i 4< 



S 

B 
!— H 

q 

a 



(a 

*4 ® 

3 £ > . 

3J.§ 

_n . : r . 



BT T“ 

? ^ -| k, 5 

a sM 

^ J = - 



£ 

0 £ 

tz 

a 



1 



D !J 





1^1 




p 


3 5 


: ■a 

.■ pu 


J rr 

5 3 


a 

C-| 

Dr-i 




X 


g 








e: 




£ 


a ^ 


£ 


■rt 


H 




H A«y 


l|ii P=E 


|| £ 
* £ “ 


_ S. ps-i s 
^ B-3J S t I' . 

Cj. ** u- = c V 


8 !' “ T 


^ 3 § E 


£ -5 J 

^ zj 5fl zj 


- 3 


i " «i 


t. J-a>E3^ v 

■s-gj ?! _ a . = 








Litltirc inscriptions coptfid during the ypar 1107 M, Hr — 





APPENDIX fl, 



List of photos tak tin m m du. rin g th* year 1107 



1 to JK E fin ihJ poses (Mlnlr**) its Him Ui All Full pUte 

[y KiJtg atwie iu ihc NIJako.ptiifcvIiiii 

temple ;tt Pud jimnfll*lmpi:i turn Do, 

HO IndnLjit inm^E; (ptoiej l)u. p t j, 

2 1 to is t>tone» piikr?: iyiri# in from of the 

temple n£ P.ipiktni Du, 

24 to £0 titoitt ■ itnutfea in (hu 

Tri vi qdroin flu 

UruaLthiihiJ lump La fi-out of tlm 

Mufchiinninjvipii (iF Sti PuitmiiTiI- 
l>hflhVA;iii tfinijilci. Trivlndmui Do L 

Vnji pillars lyiiu* in front *nT i]n_ j 

tern pk* in P*rufck& L 1 1 oil pJute . 

29 to Ait Vr-];tkn|) «t Trivfcadruuj Do. 



31 to 4t> JJiind pnsr* [T&nJrie JfmjrUt) tjuurttir plate, 




£2 



APPENDIX <3. 

& J. I> AG R Am AS 
(A Koto), 

&iAlagrftmfe aru ft kind. of round or oval forml otplialopndw 
Sacked or inlaid with ^old ujtd having a peculiar hdc and certain 
distinguishing marks of identification in, them. The name Si tag-rim a 
is dttrLved from the Sanskrit Siiaehakra, fhe weapon of Viahuti 
whieh is rEflerier! on the stone l ‘bj queer spiral Hue** talicved to be 
ciigrrtVud tliertton n.t the request of Vishnu by bmlmia wbo iti the 
form of a worm is believed to bore the holes known as Vsulunie am I 
traces the spiral (acjil thit given the Hunt* its niiue ,, ( Thcise atones 
are generally found in the bed of tlu> Gondak river, a moon tain 
torrent from the Himiliiyis iu Neplk When wnwa h ippud pmjierly 
tbilJF we believed to yield 

i- Dhanwi ii. Ariha 

hi. Aijfjw iv. M$k&ha, 

KaJigriints ure oF two kinda: J ALAJA born in ivatur mod 
STflALAJA lorn ill ear Ct | the former eofi aitd gliKteningoOfttri- 
hating wealth and happiness, and the latter rough and hard pro- 
ducing isnlvntion. Both the varieties liavu the mart of a Chakra, or 
discus, some having the shape of Vishnu end nthera of Chit. The 
holes in the stones are liored by worm* tallied %-ajrakrra 11 i those that 
ire bored by one worm are culled Stvichakra, by two worms* ChatuB- 
cbekni, and by four worms AnhtachalEt'fl SiRgTSniAsj marked with 
chakra (discus) may be- white, black, blue, nicy blue, blue like the 
flowers of A nasi, gold yellow, turmeric yellow, yallow-whi^e, red, 
dark red, tawny, cupper red, reddish brown, varieguted in oolooi 
black allotted, antiko rolqurud, nolourlest OF glistening. White 
wloured Salfl^tlma in callatl Vflsudftva, Gold yellow Himuya fiarbhs^ 
yellow §rJdh:irs; black Viahqn, Kri’Oi.i.sfi, NUrityapn, Dfirnfidara, ei 
Aniruddha,; wine coloured Mfidbeva; red Saftkaraha^Ei ; tawny Nora- 
simhnl variegated Atlanta; bright and golden V Anuria. Whitt; Sain 
grim* gives adlvation, blue wealth, blank prosperity, darkblack time, 

S ul low vrhito and gold yellow riches, pale white futne, and red fcing- 
oui. 

Selection of Sal&gr&mn*. 

After lIkh lli'li piekud up fruiu tlm bid of the river, the SiLt- 
arc tested iilld adix-ted. ‘‘Each drum- Rfl ii is diaeovened it 
Struck OJi ail aides with :l hujuU himftlitr, or ill hUUihiciSjigf is mtq-ety 
Cnrn"Ji:(l with tile linger. This CMises the soft fHiWtWy pur; pro 
ituvd by the boring of this wortn U) full La end disciomH rite Vadftiti 




19 



or hole whieh iit the chbc ot those (3 k huftl’c valon ble cm iunv eoit- 
mifi guld or precious aunt' 1 . Gan&feliy, r kkOfiG KDdajfrAnifts thut are 
oaM ill touch, glla-Niiiitig* ImhukI thuped, and with head reused ar* 
lakcU for Worship w hilr 3 flick. li ue black. yellmv, of different colo. 
urts, red a Ltd wirli Chafcm markon tliH jt-fr e ido ov uli tim ijiuLi I li- [jhiji 
in ttui bole jiEiij with ■ i'onTuliflhnuci'1 ViinE-Lm&k (garland nf llowett) 
nJW worshipped. TIil 1 Kr itnJsr- lying wifr*hi|i he thud 
;it( liF them hvil L U^tow wealth and -kLiiJH.. T|i. Hiring ifuicm^ 
(Ipti'iiiug nufl round shaped yi«U E-ner'ess: thu»i“ that »iv fine vcIIulv 
snd ddteatt-, fffadLieu Wuiilcb : while tJu! bLuk onc-a luring about fruit- 
ful reside r Tlit bill* btaek s&lagrSmis offur fame'; :lhiI the w litre 
tiiLL'i salvation; while thosfi that Ilil'-v ■ l.:t >.: l ^ : i t colours bley- tbu 
worshipper with happiness, The red coloured variety gives kitiy- 
domflmL those with “chakra 1 ' (difcflug)ois the left side or on tin? mid- 
dle ensure ineroaHe q£ family. Such of the sterner h* liave the -"L'Salirii*" 
in the hole bring abem* litmo. The stones with the Viinainik give 
good wife ; whde those with lotus mark yield cows, wealth and 
griLin&' A SfclaLgritfia which is not «tnut or broken and which ss 
ntither dark, bljuek nor herd Go tooch wilt bestow kingdom, happi- 
ness in life and salvation. When rfatugrlinn with ■Vlhokras"* and cho 
filament <i£ t ItiwirsiJLiid YanainnkL is worshipped with pro|>er ritual 
in a honw, there need Ik ho Fcur uE poverty, of robbers or of fire, or 
tr«k the evil iuLluefioc of plant? is. The sUmas whiidi loot like Jumbu 
Slid Amafitki and Law twodiukn murks lire said to have tlln aljodu 
of Vidian ih llujin. 

Tbu following kinds of istiHien urn not jidvisad tor irorahlp: 

L Storms titfree in apimairaiicv 

2 , Stones, with ‘Clinkriit? croes vice, 

a. Stains with Chakras facing interim*! Mta directiona, 

i. Stoiios witlmut Chakra it with broken Chukris. 

j, Stones with doubtful colours or with dark spots and 
smoky in nypeamiicti 

TMfTcrsiit kinds Of i^SrlELgrnmar. 

Tlnare HIV; diftniHiLl kilidf of liftlngratiUi iff wliiuh, the MaUyil, 

Jie&Lvn. Hay « utc: ;Lud Kli [kill., Yajilabbflktu, MukLapda, llaui^u 

eta-arr tailed HiHriimtirttj. There L^ rtlau LinOtber variuty culled 
Triinlitti . 

1. M ATST AMljUTTl. The Salagrauu tbjit i e bng in sLape, 
gliBtenillg and having two eliflJt-i'JUs in the luilc u[]J tint- oil the tail i- 
Mie SlMsV"J(!ntLrtt"L imJ leieroblfci the for] □ o£ a bah. If it^ \'iidiiiia 
or fjtK is like th-st cF tish, utcid IE there 5^ o ClLaki'iioti it f ucid ubovt: all 
jli; iaady-med hv SrT-V 'iitan ^nil V r nnarrtSla, rlien tliat stoiif i- luijJ 




94 



or worship, T wo chakril* ill tlif lucuitli and ll Sioli- Or jl ulsaki'a on 
he buds ms" tin; MmsvaiTU\rLt3 SfL l:i^L~iIiki:'k. indicate ttm.1: it is eerrnmlv 
n itpiaiijus . IIwlv ioLir i)d L fivL v^iriilijEt of tllin which if 

Inlv ’ifi fi L rl i i ] 1 1 L will infallibly m id -h ! H « possessor, 

KUItMA- TLL-i Stone pu^iiosm:^ ii li ifr v had;. 5s white uml Ema 
GOpum. Kfirniii Salagrismia with two i-liiikra* in ths; jttoui.li ara 
nurid r-Lh;ly : whili 1 thu-* with tluMlpirb or ilnta on tin? I Rick,, w ftli 
andi*h dlnlid with Lon" mouth on tin.: li^ht md leEtriictafl, with 
wo chakras anil WLtli i lin’rt tnmifft.' (gj;auurieii} are difficult tu obtain, 
luu wlir i ge. ^ ;t sample of ii. i$ liji'ky ; him! svh.sn iVLUvdujspftfl ijj-opfr- 

v =ill ilu«iro*3irn' Fulfilled. Tlie Kdrmn lakigrftiirui c]mt I* both round 
luI Loiig t "littirlfio" I is-: - gold. po-^ssii i g lor the mouth Lwo di^ 
Laving (Lie shiL|x+or ;i flosvet on- loneh <mi either side- of it, in calusidar-' 
d ljotw] for propitiation . Biti the omi lliut is I'onriL nil d lotus KJisiped, 
Living Imig KrtON fli iilkL twn dby- in the ravel, and wlightiy ruined 
vii the b.w’t, Hiii I abova all ikirlt ra-d in oolotii' inci-uaHes (Ji<t family 
Tld lij'jno* pniKp/rity . 

ft. V AHA HA S A L-AGli A d A Tin* h-toim that in bLnt bluet 

ike Amo flower, or blue Lotus, long in and mobl in telicli 

living long hole and ruiseil on ilie leifli, with whin mouth and 1 k.lv- 
ng nii.ikrn on the leftside mid golden lines, rolled YjirAha-martti 
iiul gives nvtL.ifi ntul kingdom, 

4. LAKSMM1 XAKASIMRA ^ALACRIMA a bkok In 
olour nnd spotted,, ami hu< [linns on ths j lul'l Side, It bcBtowg Itapp:- 
ie*s ami Lfond Fortune But those aip.*ciitllv that, hnvr wide moutli 
nil a™ tawny in colour, glistening liki- gold, with iwo elites in the 
nnuth, and abnlmll having ll flarnhlr sunt son a Uimt oar the lmfL; 
■onfif i hi tliLor svmTihi ppm's nil h: i(»| hinn^s ;in:l fulfil nil Eheir ilesirr^, 

0. VAMANAMGlilTJ ti lb Is ahurl', s|h-itfeil iiikI nirei lLi r. u ml 

ms tin i olour nt A hi "i flow.T, I t hiv* two nhuhriajll it* Ynikina or 
nautili " i :t> I i - supposed lu give nil happiness, Yin until Sihgrainn. 

VLllt W 1 1 i 1 1 ! n|lot- OIL tlh' F;LOC gl ,‘OWH. Ininl, MOTn ALU l WLUltll. If ll 
iIlim or hi nu hlnok ClmfcKi i- bnunj ill.mls' the moutli, it L'ulled 
SfnhflvfLtn-uiiL whir! i is very nifti ;lhl] fulfik sill ilij^irefi, 

[f PAU\?UIIAMAM^HT r n. TLihL Htuise having l he form 
■f it Psn^Tii rlkL tie use) niel whitu m 1 iilnek long Lind brosid 

LuI«l hviiJl i| or* nr on rhc right H>r left hide, ji line 

TeBumhllnj tu-<b-i i- tiELllml 1’nmSiirlLmn Sfitngrimn worshipped 
I^uilIEv by in sii -if mible 3 :,l ■ ii> 1 s. I he SiihigLisiiiii h living tlie 

Hariri id Jmtile sini jLiul two dmkri- ini rhu tipper side should bn 

VOfEhipped by nil 

1 . g)tl HAMA. The Silugiih Jii llLlvillg 1 1 Ll; "runic ut" * 
trttve svirriur mlorlnid ^Hr]| bowu 1 uWtWS Limi qnivcf uud having 




3$ 



da-* with filtmenta If oil Lad R&maittflrtlT If it in tanpr m id 
||ack h hIJhI ha»n eiie disc on tin.' loft *ide ainl three rtis^ in all, 
it ifl culled The l< ti ami bWL' variaty il linving 

t«o nicnitlns tVadaiLfisJ in I Four d is*; jfivi -- wealth: while E Inwe 
TT?tb three Vienna * mid five :H r (Its dim! and having thu murk <rf 
arrows non Fur hajpphiGis*. 

Sh iIALAHASLA, The Sftl^Tinm thiit ]kw tbc murks of a 
pJi.m^h ind a 4 'lu.b Eli id is liriglir a* is ml 3 «d SiLAknrstunjft. Us. 
uthtr chumoieriethw are two d bus ut the head, hlui 1 - lotii* in Front, 
aud o red fOlonr like hltXHh Till* «tOIK blr-Mes it« worst ipptir 
irilll n [round himi^b. A fr-%lii^rHLrin ImvtMjJ u smut chlttm, 
iiijtl it tawny and red ujlour is uu I Jei J IllIl‘ I nu Ins, whirl) il |Jro- 

pitMti'i] 16 sftid ro inmae tnie’a fnmily, 

ft. K RISM^JAMUJITTJ. J F-luNifl's- iit%- :k ji.it bUefc efilolll'j 
KtcKlt ■iliapi!, :i liividy fumi. fl Vunminila or jjarLmsd of flmvurs 
iLinl ii murk fiF Sri \ atmi oji rhi: Uick. T]iis stone when wor- 
sSijijjipd brings £Ood to all, A variety lit rLi-s with binds yellow 
colour, a HV-mtnetrv *f beniy, (wen eliakri’. on r3 n; a ij I e* of lit Fui^d 
purtimi, ii nasal like iqpltf arid * Wihl'i: likv tMElk. end tie: dub 
bends on #3 j« gidee, in .lallfid thipitLikriditi.i which is sjiji) to ^tve 
Huw^ T land, ovt^ iven3l.li, ate, 

Anotlirij' cm ic ld.i-.-k its colour, spotted and gib |jc:mj|, g Imped 
Hk" a f'liaktfl. i m I i^LVJhL! very sn in tin,: holes, and red Li cn.'s known 
as GG|j ft Ift i [iLiri c i bestows nil kinds of fortunes. 

|0. K Al.'K J is shilling like: n bine atntm mu! is lofitf shaped. 
It is edoi'riL"] with Yn ita.riJ.ft la (gurlnnd (if flowern) and lias a iain 
like II IukkI. It isi supposed to fulfil all des-im-, Its other 
l«atur*s nn; h red Chakra wirh n small hole, a durable seut, 
tad a lino shining Irke n sword mi rhe ljuck. ivulki is the Loerd 
af Mleochfc*; ii nd if worshipped profierly hr drives uway sirs hi 
the KubyiijCii, 

11 , KEftAVA MtJRTTL TtU Stla^ri inriifLtiters w li h ffijlden 

md silnc-r sp. ck-e and has n snail Chakra, This hiring lias four 
lornrra and two Cl-i.ki-is nil -]i« Yadnnn nr ft is- hFhek and 

■b feeliciTod to firing f^hrtiLtLn. 

12. NAliA^ A^TA MUin'Tl jjt b-hick nad Jus a tJhakm. on 
iba Ttavieh It has three lon^ lines and a hmad 0 ]H'iiiri£ on the 

side, !t is lii^h ami round in slinjai, and han a braid and 
Chakra. It satis lies uli desirrs cjI ineu, iind in partial If r «a]fer^ 
hHppineah. and fortune. 




2$ 



13. LA KfiTI MlNA KA VAljFA stoikn has ehe nuirk& uf fian'i- 

kba, Chaltni and Uitidu, "fdi^ CEeikrAi E>t; four^ llirKL! ml c.iiji: , 

Mill IL fuhilL i. L L L- ^L'hiix?' I>L' IJIfiP!, 

1J. MADHAVA MUliTTE SaE n^&um ha* tha colour ut 

wiiir or Itoney, aial a tl 1 on tlie middle. It k oily and Iuse it 
simal] opening uud eanfier& salvation to Aftflotiafif 

15, MADHirsPDHAKA MOUTH i« fojnud Co pOSBOBS 
out! L'Juiiti'u aticl hii'i li majestic: grace, Id Is found in nil colours 
and gives gmid Fortune to nren. 

16, OOVINTiAJIUlirn. Thw stone it bkck, and not much 

umE i* ft mud with fi Ce di-ten C-OvuidaaJLlijgrtini yftfcjj two 
1'hakrJl-H confer* mil objects of deifins- 

U- t VLSI nil ME If n hu* n LKiwfi bend- and broad opening. 
Ll i* oily mid tun iy coloured, sind luyt :t dine on tiw left side. Lt 
^ive* Luit h shicckki a ml enjoyment, 

\H. ntlY lit KAMA U0HTT1 Sftlunftniik worshipped by 
pious Brahmina, aiid ]iu* three corners andtwo diaoi, 

IS- £ tit D El A It A SiE JIT T.T ii? 1 iko tly: Upwr of Kada /< dta 

tree Lind ItiiH liv^ LirtoS. Lt is Liiso marktrl by a WllrtmliLL, ll lotu* 
on its* trail I fact! oL l I lie middle, and a hUrj lolour 

HO- MIlISHIKS&AMEUTI'J, Thi* gtnpie Iwn n shaipt of 
Ktidnml>a Hewer end ha* five tines. Its form is like ll avaenfit maun; 
and It luia five, three! or One Chakra* 

There in -chil stone known as U&RA CltASIlA EALA- 
CtKAITA winch is not a Diirtiuilnrly wfle mie co pussi**, Jo in 
round mid ll3-s otto Chakrfcg. If out worshipped jirojn.-r.Iy, it in 
fifilicvod tu 1 vtn^ mi u to its owner 

“PoaFftJrsioil oF thftfO SiJagriimfla witEiout n'orahtp i,s believed 
by al! Hindus to Ik: inns-i ulilurkv: end a! 1 none but Hmil I HQi na CliiI 
perform the worship* Jurne bqi they nm retain che atones in their 
tavpmg, For :in orthodox Brahmin heufehuid, the ownrmhip of 
three or uiotv stones is mi absolute raeefisity. Thesa nmst Is 
duly worshipped, und vnahed in water, and the water drunk as 
TlKTHA; mid sfierifioe oF boilfld ri« and ot-Tipr FhioJ mnitt lie dniJy 
i.K'rfcH'rufHt. ^ f |juLl rbis is dnln^ s]M>f!dy sitfVOfin in nil Eiusiuess nf 
life will fail to tint Il>i ot the inniaLnsj of the boin^ but otheni’ise rain 
mnl difigrace awaic thmu/' 




37 



APPENDIX D. 

i'/rfr; r‘ijr.1' Muttra* ( Hand i»t A k 'rlJ'fi^ < 

N0T15;— They ;Nre tin; suhit *ts thoaa tfesonttfu] ili 

N&fwfitMtfQ- 

ASAHYUKTA (»in B fc) 

1 T l^nriki 
3. J'j'iprttafcn 
3+ Kiirriiritullklki 
-I. ArdhindmijiJni 
5, A ru [n 
•6, Silk* tn]uk 

7. Mushti 

X S]kf|:Lm 
If. Ka|iillh:-i 

10, EO L’;Lk ii, [iLd kl hi 
ll h SudlTlIlUlklm 
IS, Ffduwkofei 

14. ilr-L^Liiifrxhalisi 

1$, KaiijTnl.i 

ill. [In-iL^UkbVM 
17. (Imtlnini 
JB. ^kirfiiuur.1 
ill. HjimsiNVH 

;NX 3 3 n m i-S43.prtk-jh.it 
2L Sumil&nifei 
if 1 . Mom ]a 

i.4. friiiuiiuEiH 
S+ T Tm:.inn:]jL\dit 

SAMYOliTA (Double hands) 

L ATijrtti 
if. Kftpdtaka 
a. IviifkkitiL 
i. SviiflL'ill 
5. KsitafciivnFdlifinLfiiiLi 
l>. li [simjpi 
7. XjsItftjJuL 
S. Dob 
0, Pushpupata 
lib Mutant 

11. Gajad&iua 

1 5, AvshitEm 

1 V'j»-Jl-,'i|v,J5.',,L 



lihiLl'iLCil'l 




MUD14AS IN H HITT 4 OK DANCE. 

1. CTtiiithura 

■3' U-dvrfttA 

3 * r !El! H [n U h: h : l 

4, Svimtkm 

5- Vipuyslnm 

Q. A t i iak^iui * Aj:j ukhn 

7, AvitLhflVaira 

^ , &Uchj 

0. Ufslitli* 

10. AfiJLirvirliifci 
1 J E ' niliiLi Vouchim 
12. PalkvA 
LA. Kinmlw 

14. K P&ilHLmlhil 

15. Lhita 

IB, Karilucbn 

17. VafichjtiUat 

1 *. pridyufrllft 

L£l. Otfuth Prtk&hfl 
SO. (lllvljL 
Si A I'd kniiii i 
^2- PiliivansMftli 
?&. UrAmupduli 
S4* Njipni 
35 . ludro^kd^Ltit. 

3*1 Alcipaltnvn 
£7. Tftyj. 




APPENDIX E. 

List of additions to the Library during 1107. 



1 Consemnioii llautul (iiiir John Marehidi) 

2 The M.ihr?itUk lUjns (A Tanjore (Sabrii mania ji) 

A K-ulk tuJet of Sind iiiidGassa'iit (Kincaid). 

4 The Gloriya of M^jJadhu 3" J S. S:irabld:ir). 

5 The Romuttta n£ Ardiaui il^v ■ 

1j The HLrnera book f Mervjn Tbcnupian)- 
7 A. B. C + oF uri (Bl!L::kie). 

S Hue outline of art ($1 e Willtau Urpeti). 

9 Southern Indian BrOu-Kea {Giiflfjoly). 

10 The Uietfonnry of Hitidn sirciiitccture. 

11 Journal tyf the Madras L'niversity I to 111 Vahamets,, 
IS Drmvidif: H-tudiesa Xus. I to 4. 

15 Piilluyfle of Kiuidii (It. Gopului]- 
H Critical (nin'ej of the MoLh vjl]hth Lnn^iujpt sndliterfi' 
ture. 

lj l’linuiua iitti: 1 . Palumai, 
li'l A^astij in the Tamil land. 

17 Rind n admiuiflirfltHe InsrituLimiiit 
IS The tbooTiea of Ktiaa and Dhroui. 

10 Tm nil Sunburn s^e. 

30 A A eafeay oti the origin of the Smith Imlkn tenep les. 

KtejLvation s np|i Lei LienE (Mysore 1 ). 

33 Introduction la Indian art (CooiuftruBwami). 

33 Malabar and the Dutch (Puliikk&r). 

-+ Portrait sculpture of South Indin (T G. Antyamu- 

tlun). 

if j Hindu AdmuiratnitLvn Ijistuntioua in youth India (S* K. 
Iyengar 

Sfi The ^ttvedmiHknuiifini aE Mudhanibhaitfl (C> Kunluu 
KnjiiJ ■ 

37 Riisu iioLLiiikaiu HuJui ( V cmk<iti) lino). 

2 S The SphotAsidhi iriLh the Gopaliaa (S, K. Rtimfmatha 
Siiitriy 

39 Kmk theatre (K r R. ■ Piaharot i). 

30 Litiganusisnini (HjirfluvA^hana). 

^1 Vishnu FurnuJ (Bhav&tm Kuynu). 




3ft 



33 KBVLfdjiiiinu'k^uiQ {Venldvo Rftc). 

33 A emml KtjwjrL of tbt Cothin Archntflo^Ka] OsparC - 

worn, 

3-4 Do- S+'Utti leadimi Sptermpl™, 

33 J Vs. Mysore ArcfeptiniD^iBl Depart- 

ment- 

3ft Lliw Ceylon Dfa- Fin. 

37 (juBjit-vly Journo] of Mythic Society. 

38 EpigrepiLia Indicia. 

39 Kerala. Society pupt re. 

10 MadifM Cwernmcnt Museum EqJ&fa 

4 1 Bulletin nf the Museum, Pin* arts, BoeEen. 

L* Monde Oriental. 

i 3 Vi^vahhjiiUthi Cunrtcrly, 

44 Jourrnl H»f the Bombay Eiatorks!: Sotrely. 

43 Dwajn- 
4ft Cbentflmii] 

17 Madras Pnaektenev Cnliege Mage-sine. 

18 Chi'istinn Collepe MaguEina,